Improve Your Motivation To Study By Learning How To Study Effectively

Learning how to study effectively will boost your motivation to study. This way you will enjoy studying like never before. Here are some tips on how to study effectively:

Have a positive attitude

The approach you give to your studies matters a lot. A negative attitude will demoralize you whereas a positive one will highly motivate you. Most people fail in studies because they look at it as a mandatory task and hence do not enjoy it. Take studying to be something you enjoy doing. This can be possible if you understand the reasons for your study. Take it as a personal responsibility that will change your future and mold you into someone great. Due to this you will appreciate that you are not studying for your friends, parents or relatives but for yourself.

Develop a realistic study plan

Good planning is key to the success of any activity. Have a personal study plan on how you want to achieve your study objectives. Develop a very realistic and highly effective study plan, which you can easily follow. Your study plan will help you stay organized and do the right thing at the right time.

Manage your time well

Time management is essential when learning how to study effectively. Remember time wasted can never be recovered. Besides studying is not the only thing you do in life, you have other activities that need your attention too. As such make the most out of the little time you have. Learn how to manage your time effectively and avoid unnecessarily long hours of study. The brain also has its maximum attention span and you must appreciate that.

Understand your studying habits and styles

Individuals are wired differently; hence we have different studying habits. Understand yourself as an individual before you set out to begin your studies. This has to do with your attention span, best time of even the nature of environment in which you can effectively concentrate in. Determine the number of hours your concentration can last. It is better that you study even for an hour and learn a lot, than go on for many hours without learning anything substantial. Also understand the time of day you can explain well, whether it’s at dawn, during the day or a few hours before bed.

Select an ideal location for your private studies

Based on your studying habits, get an environment that best suits you. Some people can study with loud music on while others need complete silence to concentrate. However note that it is important to study in a place where there is no disturbances as this might distort your line of thought.

Always take short notes while studying

When studying, identify important points and write them down. Effective note taking skills will help boost your memory and make you learn fast. These notes will later act as reference, especially when you study using books borrowed from the library or friends.

Only have the things you need for your study

When studying do not have things you do not need around you. This might tempt you to shift into something else. The key is to ensure nothing distracts you in any way.

Assess yourself after each and every step

You can do this alone or with the help of mates. Take assessment tests after a given period as outlined in your schedule. This will assist you in knowing how effective your study methods are and if you are learning anything at all. If you get good results then you are on the right track. However if the test results are not so good then you ought to review your studying techniques.

Maximizing a Student’s Understanding of Biostatistics Through the Review of Medical Research Studies

Introduction

In order to maximize understanding of biostatistics and its applications, a great practice for students is to review medical research studies. When reviewing medical research studies, it is important for students to recognize the type of study (randomized clinical trial, case control study, cohort study, or longitudinal study) employed and whether the study is retrospective or prospective. Understanding the type of research used and whether it is retrospective or prospective will aid a student in determining a study’s validity in an objective manner. This paper will briefly describe the preceding terms and then go on to applying these terms to five medical research study abstracts that I will describe in detail while pointing out each study’s potential strengths and weaknesses.

Types of Studies

There are four types of studies that can be used in the design of a medical research study, those being a randomized clinical trial, case control study, cohort study, and longitudinal study. A randomized clinical trial study is “a clinical study where volunteer participants with comparable characteristics are randomly assigned to different test groups to compare the efficacy of therapies” (Randomized Clinical Trial, 2011, para.1). A case control study is epidemiological study used to identify factors that may contribute to a medical illness by comparing those who have the disease or condition of interest (the cases) with those who do not have the disease or condition of interest (the controls). A cohort study is “a study in which subjects who presently have a certain condition and/or receive a particular treatment are followed over time and compared with another group who are not affected by the condition under investigation” (What is Cohort Research?, 2011, para.1). A longitudinal study is a study that follows patients over a prolonged period of time. Some sources also describe a longitudinal study as one in which the same patients are examined on two or more occasions.

A study can either be retrospective or prospective. Retrospective studies look backwards in time and examines exposures to suspected risk or protection factors in relation to an outcome that is established at the start of the study. In contrast, a prospective study looks forward in time and watches for outcomes, such as the development of a disease, during the study period and relates this to other factors such as suspected risk or protection factor(s).

Research Study Abstract #1

The first medical research study abstract that will be described in detail is “A Large Study of Long-Term Daily Use of Adult-Strength Aspirin and Cancer Incidence” by Eric J. Jacobs, Michael J. Thun, Elizabeth B. Bain, Carmen Rodriguez, S. Jane Henley, and Eugenia E. Calle.

This study shows evidence that aspirin use correlates with lowered risks of colon cancer and possibly several other cancers, including prostate and breast cancer. The study method examined associations between long-term daily use of adult strength aspirin (325 mg/day) measuring overall cancer incidence and incidence of 10 types of cancer among 69810 men and 76303 women. These men and women, who were relatively elderly, took part in the Cancer Prevention Study.

Since aspirin use was reported at enrollment in 1992-1993 and updated in 1997, 1999, and 2001, this is a cohort study. Individuals were already classified as groups at the beginning of the study into those who were taking 325 mg/day of aspirin and those who were not. The study is also retrospective in nature because it looked at survey data that was already provided by the American Cancer Society.

Results of the experiment showed that during a follow up in 2003, that Long-term (5 years) daily use of adult-strength aspirin, in comparison with no aspirin use, was associated with lower overall cancer rate in men (multivariable-adjusted RR = 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.76 to 0.93). Since the confidence interval does not include 1 and RR (rate ratios) for men was < 1, results are deemed statistically significant. A non-statistically significantly lower overall cancer rate was reported in women (multivariable-adjusted RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.73 to 1.03). Although the RR (rate ratios) for women was < 1, the confidence interval includes 1; results a deemed to be non-significant because variation can account for the observed correlation. Results also show that long-term daily aspirin use correlated with lower incidence that was statistically significant of colorectal cancer (RR = 0.68, 95% CI =0.52 to 0.90 among men and women combined) and prostate cancer prostate cancer (RR =0.81, 95% CI = 0.70 to 0.94). Non-statistically significantly lower overall female breast cancer (RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.63 to 1.10) was shown by the results.

Since this study is a retrospective cohort study, it does have several specific strengths and weaknesses. Strengths are that it is good for displaying multiple outcomes and is relatively inexpensive. Major weaknesses include that the investigator has little or no control over exposure and outcome, the temporal relationship is often difficult to determine, it requires large samples for rare outcomes, and the comparability between exposed and unexposed is difficult to achieve.

Research Study Abstract #2

The second medical research study abstract that will be described in detail is “Effects of Immediate Versus Delayed Pushing during Second-Stage Labor on Fetal Well-Being: A Randomized clinical trial” by Kathleen Rice Simpson and Dotti C. James.

This study shows evidence that it is more favorable for the well-being (in terms of fetal oxygen desaturation/saturation and variable decelerations of the fetal heart rate) of an infant for mothers at 10-cm cervical dilation to delay pushing until the woman feels the urge to push versus being coached to immediately start pushing at 10-cm cervical dilation. The study also shows that women who pushed immediately had more perineal lacerations. No differences were shown in the results between pushing and delayed pushing in length of labor, method of birth, Apgar scores, or umbilical cord blood gases.

Since women were randomly allocated to receive one or other of the alternative treatments under study (to push or delay pushing) this is a randomized clinical trial. It is also prospective in nature because it looked forward in time and watched for outcomes.

Results of the experiment showed significant difference between groups in fetal oxygen desaturation during the 10-cm cervical dilation (immediate: M = 12.5; delayed: M = 4.6) F (1, 43) = 12.24, p =.001, and in the number of >=2-min epochs of fetal oxygen saturation <30% (immediate: M = 7.9; delayed: M = 2.7), F (1, 43) =6.23, p =.02. There were more variable decelerations of the fetal heart rate in the immediate pushing group (immediate: M = 22.4; delayed: M = 15.6) F (1, 43) = 5.92, p =.02. Women who immediately at pushed 10-cm cervical dilation had more perineal lacerations (immediate: n = 13; delayed: n = 5) [chi] 2 (1, N = 45) = 6.54, p =.01. Assuming that the alpha is.05; the p-values fall well below the threshold and are deemed to be statistically significant; in other words, the null hypothesis is rejected in variable decelerations of the fetal heart rate, fetal oxygen saturation, and perinatal lacerations.

Since this study is a prospective randomized clinical trial, it does have several specific strengths and weaknesses. Strengths include elimination of bias in treatment assignment, facilitation of blinding (masking) of the identity of treatments from investigators, participants, and assessors, and it permits the use of probability theory to express the likelihood that any difference in outcome between treatment groups merely indicates chance. Weaknesses include potential limitations of external validity on where the study was performed, on characteristics of the patients, on study procedures, on outcome measures, and in incomplete reporting of adverse effects of interventions. In addition, randomized clinical trials can be quite expensive to perform.

Research Study Abstract #3

The third medical research study abstract that will be described in detail is “An Intervention to Increase Safety Behaviors of Abused Women” by Judith McFarlane, Ann Malecha, Julia Gist, Kathy Watson, Elizabeth Batten, Iva Hall, and Sheila Smith.

This study shows evidence that telephone intervention is an effective way increase safety behaviors of abused women who are victims of intimate partner violence. Intervention is administered immediately after an abusive behavior and remains effective for 6 months after the treatment. A two-group trial randomized 75 abused women to receive six telephone intervention periods on safety behaviors. A control group of 75 women received standard care. Women in both groups were re-interviewed at 3 months and 6 months for post-initial measurement.

Since women were randomly selected to receive the alternative treatment or be part of the control group under the study (to receive intervention or not receive intervention) this is a randomized clinical trial. It is also prospective and longitudinal in nature because it followed subjects over a prolonged period of time through re-interviewing the women at both 3 months and 6 months.

Results of the experiment showed significant difference between groups who received intervention to those who did not. More adopted safety behaviors were reported by women in the intervention group [F (2,146) 5.11, p =.007] than women in the control group at both the 3-month [F (91, 74) = 19.70, p <.001] and 6-month [F (1, 74) = 15.90, p <.001] interviews. Assuming that the alpha is.05; the p-values fall well below the threshold and are deemed to be statistically significant; the null hypothesis is rejected in women who received intervention at both the 3-month and 6-month interviews.

As previously discussed, since this study is a prospective randomized clinical trial, it does have several specific strengths and weaknesses. Strengths include elimination of bias in treatment assignment, facilitation of blinding (masking) of the identity of treatments from investigators, participants, and assessors, and it permits the use of probability theory to express the likelihood that any difference in outcome between treatment groups merely indicates chance. Weaknesses include potential limitations of external validity on where the study was performed, on characteristics of the patients, on study procedures, on outcome measures, and in incomplete reporting of adverse effects of interventions. In addition, randomized clinical trials can be quite expensive to perform.

Research Study Abstract #4

The fourth medical research study abstract that will be described in detail is “Treatments of Coronary Artery Disease Improve Quality of Life in the Long Term” by Hannele Lukkarinen and Maija Hentinen.

This study shows evidence that long-term health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after 8 years is more favorable for patients receiving a bypass operation or angioplasty than the baseline of 1 year after surgery. Also, in patients taking medication, the study shows that there were no significant changes were reported in the HRQoL of the patients on medication when comparing the baseline to 8 years after treatment. It is important to note that a significant impairment on the response variable of sleep had taken place during the 8 years follow-up after angioplasty. The initial study was made up of 280 patients where 100 of those patients underwent a bypass operation, 100 had an angioplasty, and 80 were prescribed medication. After 1 year, 81 bypass operation patients, 74 angioplasty patients, and 64 patients in the medication group responded. In the final analysis after 8 years, 63 bypass operation patients, 57 angioplasty patients, and 34 patients in the medication group responded.

Since patients with coronary artery disease are compared by their method of treatment this is a case control study. It is also prospective and longitudinal in nature because it followed subjects over a prolonged period of time through interviewing patients after 1 and 8 years.

Results of the experiment showed patients had a statistically significantly better HRQoL 8 years after the operation than at baseline on the response variables of mobility (p <.001), energy (p =.003), and pain (p =.031). Angioplasty patients had a statistically significantly better HRQoL 8 years after the intervention on the response variables of emotional reactions (p =.002), pain (p =.003), mobility (p =.004), and energy (p =.005). A significant deficiency on the response variable of sleep had taken place after 8 years follow-up after angioplasty (p =.018), Assuming that the alpha is.05; the p-values fall well below the threshold and are deemed to be statistically significant; the null hypotheses after 8 years regarding HRQoL and sleep are rejected.

Since this study is a prospective case control study, it does have several specific strengths and weaknesses. Strengths include that it is good for rare diseases, requires little time to conduct, has the possibility of exploring multiple exposures and is relatively inexpensive. Weaknesses include the reliance on recall or historical data, that temporality can be difficult to establish, and the comparability of cases and controls.

Research Study Abstract #5

The fifth medical research study abstract that will be described in detail is “Caregiving Experiences After Stroke” by Cynthia S Teel, Pamela Duncan, and Sue Min Lai.

The purpose of this study was to examine correlation between patient characteristics, caregiver characteristics, and caregiver managing resources with caregiver physical and mental health results at 3 and 6 months after a dependent adult’s stroke. Another objective was to compare family members’ assessments of patient disability with assessment by doctors. The caregiver study was conducted in partnership with a study of patient effects after stroke. 83 Caregivers completed and mailed back questionnaires at 1, 3, and 6 months after the patient’s stroke. The surveys asked questions on fatigue and energy, assessment of mood disturbance, stress, spirituality, and reactions to the caregiving situation. This data recorded by respondents provided a detailed assessment of caregiver characteristics, coping resources, and physical and mental health status.

Since Individuals were already classified as a group at the beginning of the study into caregivers and patients, this is a cohort study. It is also prospective and longitudinal in nature because it followed subjects over a prolonged period of time through interviewing caregivers at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months.

Results of the experiment showed correlation between physical health and depressive symptoms are parallel at 3 and 6 months. Perceived stress was correlated to mental health at 3 and 6 months. Caregiver ratings of disability at 1 month matched doctor’s assessments using the Orpington Prognostic scale. Results also show evidence of a caregiver’s stable perceptions of fatigue, vigor, recurrent sorrow, perceived stress, finances, family support, physical health, and depression symptoms at 1, 3, and 6 months after a dependent adult’s stroke. It was determined that a comprehensive approach to stroke rehabilitation should include comprehensive assessment of caregiver functioning soon after a dependent adult’s stroke. Early assessment might identify persons at greater risk for physical and mental health problems in a continuing caregiving role.

Since this study is a prospective cohort study, it does have several specific strengths and weaknesses. Strengths are that there is the possibility to study multiple exposures and multiple outcomes in one cohort and rare exposures can be studied. Major weaknesses are that it is not possible to establish causal effects and it is easily susceptible to selection bias. Also, prospective cohort studies can be quite expensive to perform.

Research Study Abstract #6

The sixth medical research study abstract that will be described in detail is “Daily Stress and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Women With Irritable Bowel Syndrome” by Vicky L. Hertig, Kevin C. Cain, Monica E Jarrett, Robert L. Burr, Margaret M. Heitkemper.

The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation of daily self-reported stress to gastrointestinal and psychological distress symptoms both across women and within woman in a comparison group of women without Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and among subgroups of women with IBS.

Since respondents are compared by daily self-reported stress to gastrointestinal and psychological distress symptoms both across women and within woman in a comparison group of women without IBS and among subgroups of women with IBS, this is a case control study. It is also prospective and longitudinal in nature because it followed subjects over a prolonged period of time through the testing of respondents daily for a month.

This study shows evidence that gastrointestinal symptom discomfort is associated with self-reported stress in women with IBS; stress has been associated to be a contributing factor to launching bowel and discomfort symptoms and making the problem worse in patients with IBS. Results of the experiment showed significant across-women correlations among mean daily stress, psychological distress, and GI symptoms in the total IBS group and the IBS bowel pattern subgroups. Across-women and within-woman analyses were used. Women with IBS (n = 181; age = 18-49 years) were divided into subgroups based on bowel pattern (constipation, n = 52; diarrhea, n = 67; alternating, n = 62) and were compared to a group of women without IBS (n = 48). Self-report stress measures were abdominal (abdominal pain, bloating, and intestinal gas), bowel pattern (constipation, diarrhea), and intestinal gas; and psychological (anxiety and depression) distress symptoms were obtained daily over 1 month. The across-women relationships between daily stress and gastrointestinal symptoms were less when anxiety and depression were controlled in the test. Although within-woman analyses showed little evidence of correlation between day-to-day variations in stress and day-to-day variations in GI symptoms, stress was strongly related to anxiety and depression.

As previously discussed, since this study is a prospective case control study, it does have several specific strengths and weaknesses. Strengths include that it is good for rare diseases, requires little time to conduct, has the possibility of exploring multiple exposures, and is relatively inexpensive. Weaknesses include the reliance on recall or historical data, that temporality can be difficult to establish, and the comparability of cases and controls.

Summary

In summary, reviewing medical research studies can help maximize a student’s understanding of biostatistics and its applications. When reviewing these studies, it is important for students to comprehend the type of study used and the potential strengths and weaknesses associated with each study. After this understanding is achieved, a student will be able to question the validity of medical research that he or she is reading in an objective manner.

References

What is Cohort Research? (2011). Retrieved April 7, 2011, from Cha Cha: http://www.chacha.com/question/what-is-cohort-research

Randomized Clinical Trial . (2011). Retrieved April 7, 2011, from The Free Dictionary: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/randomized+clinical+trial

Study Hints For Tests

Studying for exams can be challenging, particularly if you do not employ any study methods to maximise your study sessions in the lead up to the exams.

When you center your study time utilizing some study techniques, you can raise your chance of attaining far better scores.

Below are a number of the very best study techniques you might want to consider using when you are ready to begin studying plus some critical study tips too.

Mind maps provide an excellent approach to study for exams which will involve a great deal of relevant details. Mind maps allow you to show relations among principles, making it easy for you to remember all the info covered. For that matter, by producing your own mind maps and utilizing those to study, simply starting with several significant phrases should help you to recall a lot of the study course with no difficulty.

Condensing and memorization material is another excellent study option to employ in the event that you are wondering, how can you study for examinations. To work with this kind of study strategy, you start by simply writing out all you must know for the test. Then, use the initial sheets and then make an effort to condense all of them with out taking away content – merely give attention to eliminating vocabulary that is pointless. And then go on repeating this step right up until you’ve got everything reduced to a page or two. Of all the different strategies to study for tests, flash cards are among the most well-known, most popular techniques. This particular study method is most effective when you are getting yourself ready for an exam in a program that require you to definitely remember numerous words. Flashcards can be used as term memorization, to study images or write out ideas. Construct your personal flash cards and study them on a regular basis.

So while you still wondering how do you study for tests? It’s helpful to create some good study patterns to follow together with your own study techniques of choice. These are typically critical study routines that are needed, to get your very best grades.

Keep away from procrastinating, don’t be in the circumstance of studying 1 / 2 the evening before an evaluation. Waiting around to start studying the evening prior to your exams suggests that you’re not learning the material effectively and on the time of your test you will not manage to recall the data. It is easy to prevent cramming simply put together your review sessions in the lead up to your tests. Breaking your own study periods into 30 sessions will make them much easier to understand materials for your examinations

However, if all else does not work out, don’t freak out. Anxiety could make it much harder for you to understand as well as remember things out of your studying periods. When you are having an anxiety attack, try taking some deep breaths and then slow your thoughts down just by thinking about anything cheerful. You need to really apply this prior to the exam day. Lastly never talk to others following the tests concerning how it went, it can affect any other tests in the same day.

Three Studying Habits That Will Quickly Get You Better Grades

Power Studying

We all love studying don’t we? Nothing better than good old studying. That’s what you’re thinking right? Can’t wait to hit the books each night after school? Yes? No? What do you mean am I crazy?

We want you to maximize every minute spent studying and as a result maximize every minute you don’t have to study! That’s right; we want you to study less. Every day. We want you to study less by learning how to power study – to study with super powerful efficiency and effectiveness which will cut the amount of time spent studying down to nothing! OK, that’s a lie – but you get the drift. You have to study anyway, so why not learn how to learn more in less time?

So what are we waiting for? Let’s get cracking on the new habits you are going to introduce and start putting into practise from today. Here they come – are you ready for them?

Successful students do the following:

Never Over-Study

As soon as you spend too much time studying you will quickly lose focus and the time spent studying will become ‘junk time’. Junk time is when you think you’re studying but you’re just sitting there re-reading the same sentence about 100 times. You’re studying, but you’re not getting anywhere. You’re the mouse on the wheel. Round and round you go. Instead, take regular breaks. We’d recommend a 15 minute break for every 30 minutes of work completed. So it’s a 2 to 1 ratio. For every 2 hours you spend studying over a 3 hour period, at least 1 hour of that should be break time. Taking breaks will restore your energy and refresh your mind – plus it will give your mind some time to take in what you have been doing (this is very useful when you are doing memory activities). That doesn’t mean you should spend the break thinking about what you’ve been doing. To the contrary, allow your mind to rest by doing something completely different. Finally, don’t study for more than 45 minutes in any one sitting if you can avoid it. The brain tends to switch off at the 45 minute mark. Huh? Switch off? I was wondering if mine would ever switch on!

Plan Their Study

Successful students actually plan what they are going to do during their study time. As in, they actually plan the time they will be studying and they set goals for what they will achieve during their study. For example, your new habit could be saying ‘I will study from 5 o’clock to 6.30 pm with a 15 minute break at 5.45 pm. At 6.30 pm I will have done all my maths worksheets and my history homework. I will then go online and get some solid Facebook time under my belt. Planning is no joke. If you want to be successful, do what successful students do. Create a plan, establish a goal and then stick to it like super glue. By having set times for doing work each day it will create a routine for you and as every good teacher will tell you, a routine is the first step towards developing a habit. And this habit is good. When you know that you have committed to work at a specific time each day you will be mentally prepared for it. You will know that 5 o’clock is study time. Just like you know 7 o’clock is dinner time (for some people!). Goal setting is also important. If you sit down with no clear thoughts about what you’re trying to achieve during your study time you will just pointlessly drift along without knowing if you’ve done what you’re supposed to do. So, create a target to achieve and focus your energy towards it. You won’t regret it!

Front Up To The Toughest Work First

Let’s face it, when completing tasks we all love to do the easy things first. Why? Because it build our confidence. We get excited when we’re ticking items off our to-do list. BANG! 1st item ticked off. BANG! Double tick that item now I’m rolling. The only problem with the tick-off easy items first approach is that you use up your best energy at the start of any study session and so if you are tackling the easy parts with your best energy your energy reserves will be low when it comes time to tackle the hard part of what you need to get done. So what happens then? Bet you can’t guess! You can guess? That’s right – you get tired, you get grumpy, you get frustrated and then just give up and go play Xbox. We all do it. We really shouldn’t though. So get in the habit of dedicating your best energy to the difficult tasks first and completing the easy ‘I can do it with my eyes closed’ stuff last.